Appraising the Moderation Indonesian Muslims with Special Reference to Muhammadiyah and Nahdlatul Ulama

Hamid Fahmy Zarkasyi

Abstract


Indonesia is the country that has been widely regarded as home to a moderate brand of Islam compared to the more assertive political and militant Islamic revivals that have taken place in some of Middle East countries. However, recent series of terrorist attack and the emergence of groups that are categorized as extremist and fundamentalist in Indonesia have given opposite impression. This paper is aimed at appraising the the moderation of Indonesian Muslim. The object of this study is two largest Muslim organizations namely Muhammadiyah and Nahdlatul Ulama. For this appraisal the author employs the selectively the criteria of Western scholars as well as Muslim intellectuals, since there are growing tendency of observers, intellectual and policy makers to pose certain criteria of moderation based on their own interests. General survey on those tendencies suggests that there are at least three categories of moderate definition: extremist, Western biased and Islamic criteria, each of which contain acceptable and unacceptable aspects that require further selection. It is from these acceptable criteria that the author attempts to appraise the moderation of Indonesian Muslims through the vision and mission of mass-organization, especially Muhammadiyah and Nahdlatul Ulama as well as their education system. The study arrive on the conclusion that based on Islamic as well as Western criteria, the majority of Indonesian Muslims or the mainstream remain moderate.


Keywords


Moderate; Tolerance; Human Right; Muhammadiyah; Nahdatul Ulama

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abdelmajid, Bedoui. “Islam and Moderation”, a paper presented at Symposium Islam in Asia, Revisiting the Socio-Political Dimension of Islam, held The Japan Institute of International Affairs, with co-ordination from Institute of Islamic Understanding Malaysia, Tokyo, October 15-16, 2008.

Abdullah, M. Amin. “Muhammadiyah’s Experience in Promoting Civil Society on the Eve of the 21th Century”, Mitsuo Nakamura, Sharon Siddique, and Omar Farouk Bajunid. Islam and Civil Society in Southeast Asia. Singapore: ISEAS, 2001.

Akerman, Piers. “Time to Remember Bali’s Ground Zero”, Sunday Telegraph, October 5, 2003.

Azra, Azyumardi. “Radical and Mainstream Islam: New Dynamics in Indonesia”, Theodore Friend (ed.) Religion and Religiosity in the Philippines and Indonesia: Essays on State, Society, and Public Creeds. n.p.: Bookings Institute Press, 2000.

Bruinessen, Martin van. “Kitab Kuning: Books in Arabic Script Used in the Pesantren Milieu”, Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land-, en Volkenkunde 146 (1990).

Cohen, Ariel. “Power or Ideology: What the Islamists Choose will Determine Their Future”, The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 3, 2005.

Dhofier, Zamakhsyari. Tradisi Pesantren: Studi Tentang Pandangan Hidup Kyai. Jakarta: LP3ES, 1985.

Esposito, John L. (ed.), Islam in Asia: Religion, Politic, and Society. New York-Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Esposito, John L. “Moderate Muslims: a Mainstream of Modernists, Islamists, Conservatives, and Traditionalists”, The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 3, Summer 2005.

_______. “The Clash of Ignorance: the War on Terror Must Not Compromise Muslim Rights”, The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 3, 2005.

Fuller, Graham E. “Freedom and Security: Necessary Conditions for Moderation”, The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 3, 2005.

Graham, C. Duncan. “Confronting Australian Smugness”, The Jakarta Post, July 14, 2005.

Hasbullah. Sejarah Pendidikan Islam di Indonesia:Lintasan Sejarah Pertumbuhan dan Perkembangan. Jakarta: Raja Grafindo Persada, 1999.

Hasyim, Farid. “Visi Pondok Pesantren dalam Pengembangan SDM: Studi Kasus di Pondok pesantren Mahasiswa al-Hikam”, Thesis, Program Pascasarjana Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang (UMM), 1998.

Ibnu Kathir, al-Hafiz Abi al-Fida’ Isma‘il. Tafsir Al-Qur’an Al-‘Azim. Beirut, Lubnan: Dar al-Ma‘rifah, 1992.

“Indonesia Backgrounder: How The Jemaah Islamiyah Terrorist Network Operates”, ICG Asia Report, Number 43, December 1, 2002.

Interview in Van Zorge Report, “Islam is Only Being Used as a Political Commodity”, December 2000.

Jan, Abid Ullah. “Moderate Islam: a Product of American Extremism”, The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 3, 2005.

Jean, Peter. “Australia May Fight Terror Through Indonesian Schools”, Australian Associated Press General News, October 5, 2003.

“Jemaah Islamiyah in South East Asia: Damaged but Still Dangerous”, ICG Asia Report, Number 63, August 26, 2003.

Khan, M.A. Muqtedar. “Islamic Democracy and Moderate Muslims: The Straight Path Runs through the Middle”, The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 3, Summer 2005.

Khan, Muqtedar. “Moderate Muslims Are the Key to the Future of Islam and American-Muslim Relations”, The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 3, 2005.

McCarthy, Andrew. “Inventing Moderate Islam [incl. John Esposito]”, National Review Online, August 24, 2010.

Nadami, Rania Muhammad Aziz. “al-Wasatiyyah fi at-Tarafiyyah bayn al-Mashru’ wa al-Mamnu’”, Journal of Department of Islamic and Arabic Studies for Girl, Volume 3, Issue 26, 2005.

Powell, Sian and Sandra Nahdar, “Warning on Closing Islamic schools”, The Australian, October 4, 2003.

ar-Razi, Fakhr ad-Din. at-Tafsir al-Kabir aw Mafatih al-Ghayb. Beirut, Lubnan: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1990.

Safi, Louay. “Reflections on Ijtihad and Moderate Islam”, The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 3, Summer 2005.

at-Tabari, Abi Ja‘far Muhammad bin Jarir. Tafsir at-Tabari al-Musamma Jami‘ al-Bayan fi Ta'wil al-Qur’an. Beirut, Lubnan: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1992.

Zakariya, Abu al-Husayn Ahmad Fariz bin. Mu‘jam Maqayis al-Lughah, Juz 2, ed. ‘Abd as-Salam Muhammad Harun. Kairo: Maktabat al-Habikhi, 1981.

Zarkasyi, Abdullah Syukri. Gontor dan Pembaharuan Pendidikan Pesantren. Jakarta: RajaGrafindo Persada, 2005.

Zarkasyi, Imam. “Pidato pada Resepsi Kesyukuran Setengah Abad Pondok Modern Darussalam Gontor dan Peresmian Masjid Jami’ Gontor”, unpublished text of speech, 1976.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21043/addin.v12i1.4179

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 ADDIN

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Indexed by:

data:image/png;base64,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            

 

ADDIN by Center for Research and Community Service IAIN Kudus is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.