Studi Komparasi Kinerja Bank Perkreditan Rakyat (BPR) Syariah dan Konvensional di Sumatera Barat

Masyhuri Hamidi

Abstract


Rural Banks (BPR) have an important role in supporting the Indonesian economy through the provision of financial access to the society and micro, small and medium enterprises. Indonesia has implemented a dual-banking system as its banking system - Islamic banking and conventional banking systems - and BPR are possible to select each of the system to be implemented. In the rapid development of the financial industry Islamic and conventional BPR must be able to compete with other financial institutions like non-bank financing companies. So that, there is an importance to examine the success factor of BPR with the different systems in order to strengthen their position in its industry. This study aims to examine the factors that determines the performance of rural banks (BPR) and make a comparison between the BPR with Islamic and conventional systems in the West Sumatra province. To test the performance of rural banks various financial ratios based on the CAMEL framework are used, including ratio of Capital Adequacy, Asset Quality, Management, Earnings and Liquidity. The method used is quantitative method by using one-way ANOVA and Multiple Linear Regression to the panel data of Islamic and conventional BPR in 2011-2015 period. The results show that there are differences in the factors that determines the performance of Islamic and Conventional BPR.

Bank Perkreditan Rakyat (BPR) memiliki peran penting dalam mendukung perekonomian Indonesia melalui penyediaan akses keuangan untuk masyarakat ekonomi lemah dan usaha mikro, kecil dan menengah. Indonesia telah mengimplementasikan dual-banking system sebagai sistem perbankannya yaitu sistem perbankan syariah dan sistem perbankan konvensional dan BPR juga dimungkinkan untuk memilih masing-masing sistem tersebut. Ditengah pesatnya perkembangan industri keuangan saat ini BPR syariah dan konvensional harus mampu bertahan dari persaingan yang diberikan lembaga keuangan lainnya seperti perusahaan pembiayaan non-bank. Untuk itu perlu diketahui apa saja faktor yang menjadi penentu kesuksesan BPR dan bagaimana perbedaan karakteristik yang menjadi penentu kesuksesan BPR dengan sistem yang berbeda tersebut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji faktor-faktor yang menjadi penentu kinerja bank perkreditan rakyat (BPR) serta melakukan komparasi antara BPR dengan sistem syariah dan konvensional di Provinsi Sumatera Barat. Untuk menguji kinerja BPR tersebut digunakan berbagai rasio keuangan berdasarkan framework CAMEL yang meliputi rasio Capital Adequacy, Asset Quality, Management, Earnings dan Liquidity. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode kuantitatif dengan menggunakan one-way ANOVA dan Multiple Linear Regression terhadap data panel dari BPR syariah dan BPR konvensional di Provinsi Sumatera Barat dalam rentang waktu 2011-2015. Hasil analisis memperlihatkan bahwa terdapat perbedaan faktor-faktor yang menjadi penentu kinerja BPR Syariah dan BPR Konvensional.


Keywords


Rural Banks; Islamic Rural Banks; Conventional Rural Banks; CAMEL Framework; Bank Performance; West Sumatra

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21043/iqtishadia.v10i1.2318

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