ESTIMASI KESEHATAN EKOSISTEM PERTANIAN PADI ORGANIK VS ANORGANIK BERDASARAKAN KELIMPAHAN DAN KEKAYAAN FLORA, FAUNA, PREDATOR DAN LAYANAN EKOSISTEM

Hanin Niswatul Fauziah

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Tujuan jurnal review ini adalah untuk mendiskusikan kesehatan ekosistem berdasarkan kelimpahan dan kekayaan flora, fauna, predator dan layanan ekosistem di pertanian organik dan anorganik. Studi yang dilakukan Deb menunjukkan bahwa diversitas flora di plot pertanian padi organik lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan plot pertanian padi anorganik. Hasil meta analisis menunjukkan bahwa 96 dari 117 studi yang telah dilakukan kelimpahan spesies di pertanian organik 50% lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan pertanian anorganik. Diversitas artropoda di plot pertanian anorganik lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan plot pertanian organik. Kekayaan burung predator pada pertanian organik lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan pertanian anorganik. Hal ini karena di pertanian organik memiliki tanaman liar yang digunakan sebagai temat bertengger, mendapatkan makanan, dan berkembangbiak burung predator. Praktek pertanian organik dapat meningkatkan agen biologi kontrol, dalam kasus ini untuk memeliharan musuh alami melalui manipulasi habitat

 

Kata kunci: kekayaan, layanan ekosistem, organik, pertanian


Keywords


ayanan ekosistem

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References


Layanan Kesehatan Ekosistem Pertanian Organik dibandingkan Pertanian Anorganik

Penggunaan pestisida telah menurunkan diversitas ekosistem pertaian,sehingga para petani perlu kembali ke sistem pertanian organic. Karena secara umum pertanian organik merupakan sistem pertanian yang mendukung kesehatan ekosistem karena menggunakan input yang berbasis bahan-bahan dari alam. Praktek pertanian organik telah meningkatkan agen pengendali biologi dalam hal ini adalah memaintenance musuh alami melalui manipulasi habitat (refugia) (Deb, 2009). Pada pertanian organik tanaman seperti Cyperus rotundus, Bacopa monnieri, Chenopodium album, Marsilea minuta, Aeschynomene indica dan Ludwigian parviflora yang terdapat pada pematang sawah berfungsi sebagai tempat mencari makan dan breeding habitat bagi beberapa arthropoda dan tempat bertengger bagi burung-burung pemakan serangga herbivor. Beberapa literatur menyebutkan bahwa terdapat hubungan antara diversitas predator dan pest. peningkatan diversitas predator dapat menekan laju hama. Lavelle et all (2004) menyatakan bahwa pada pertanian organik predator ada pada sepanjang musim tanam dan jumlah predator pertanian mampu menurunkan jumlah hama dan mengurangi kerusakan sehingga akan meningkatkan produksi pertanian. Deb (2009) menyatakan bahwa peningkatan diversitas pada suatu ekosistem akan meningkatkan panjang rantai makanan. Rantai makanan yang terdapat pada pertanian organik lebih panjang dibandingkan dengan pertanian anorganik, sehingga dapat dikatakan bahwa ekosistem di pertanian organik lebih kompleks dibandingkan ekosistem pertanian anorganik.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21043/jobe.v2i1.4325

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