MAQASHID SYARI’AH DAN HAK ASASI MANUSIA (IMPLEMENTASI HAM DALAM PEMIKIRAN ISLAM)

Abdurrahman Kasdi

Abstract


MAQASHID SYARI’AH AND HUMAN RIGHTS (IMPLEMENTATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN ISLAMIC THOUGHT).  This  research  intends  analysed  relationship between ‘maqashid shari’ah’ and human rights in the context of  Islamic thought. In some text and context of  Islamic civilization, Islam respects equality. Islam gives freedom, both thinking and doing. Humans have a sense that is used to assess and see the surroundings. God gives the freedom of expression, criticizing and rectifying the country steps. Related to human rights, human being is a central point that gets attention. All the concepts and theory directed towards how to maintain mankind virtue. In the classification stage, these rights can be grouped into the most important, important and less important. To provide a solution to the phenomenon, the most ideal is to use a ‘maqashid’ concept that is implemented with ‘fiqh aulawiyat’ (priority). To promote and realize the ‘maqashid’ concept, it requires skillful people. Incorporating the concept of  Islamic human rights in the International level becomes an indicator of the implementation of these two relations.

keywords:   ‘Maqashid   Syari’ah’,   Human   Right,  ‘Dlaruriyah’, ‘Hajjiyah’, ‘Tahsiniyah’

Penelitan ini bermaksud mengkasji relasi antara maqashid syari’ah dan hak asasi manusia dalam konteks pemikiran  Islam. Dalam beberapa teks dan konteks peradaban Islam, Islam sangat menghormati persamaan hak. Dalam masalah kebebasan; baik berfikir maupun berbuat, Islam memberikan  keluasaan  selebar–selebarnya.  Manusia  memiliki  akal yang dipergunakan untuk menilai dan melihat alam sekitarnya. Allah memberikan kebebasan mengutarakan pendapat, mengkritik dan meluruskan langkah–langkah negara. Dalam perbincangan tentang HAM, manusia adalah titik sentral yang mendapatkan perhatian. Semua konsep dan teori diarahkan  bagaimana untuk menjaga kemashlahatan umat manusia. Dalam tahap klasifikasi, hak–hak tersebut bisa dikelompokkan menjadi paling penting, penting dan kurang penting. Untuk memberikan solusi atas fenomena tersebut yang paling ideal adalah dengan memakai konsep maqashid yang diimplementasikan dengan fiqh aulawiyat (prioritas). Untuk mengedepankan konsep maqashid ini diperlukan tangan–tangan terampil sehingga bisa terealisir. Memasukkan konsep HAM Islam dalam tingkat International, menjadi indikator implementasi dua relasi ini.

kata kunci: Maqashid Syari’ah, HAM, Dlaruriyah, Hajjiyah, Tahsiniyah



Full Text:

PDF

References


Hamid, Al-Amin Yusuf, Al-Maqashid al-Ammah li as-Syari’ah al- Islamiyyah, Cairo: IIIT. 1994.

Ismail, Al-Hasani,, Nadlriyyah al-Maqashid ‘Inda al-Imam Muhammad ath-Thahir bin Asyur, Cairo: IIIT. 1995.

Fustel, De Caulanges, La Cite Antique, Paris, 1923.

Percy Hancock, , The Code of Hammurabi, London. 1932.

Imam asy-Syatibi, , Al-Muwafaqat fi Ushul al-Ahkam, Cairo: Dar al-Haya,1996.

Muhammad, Imarah, Al-Islam wa as-Siyasah, Cairo: Dar at-Tauzi’

wa an-Nasyr, 1997.

Subhi, Mahmassani, Arkan Huquq al-Insan, diterjemahkan oleh

Hassanuddin, Jakarta: Lentera Antar Nusa, 1993.

---------, , Al-Auda’ut Tasyri’iyyah fi ad-Duwal al-Arabiyyah, Libanon: Beirut cetakan ke-3. 1968.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21043/jupe.v8i2.836

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2016 Jurnal Penelitian



Indexed by:

data:image/png;base64,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

 

 

JURNAL PENELITIAN by Research Center of IAIN Kudus, Indonesia is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.